Enlightenment Defended
Politics • Spirituality/Belief • Culture
Enlightenment Defended will repel the dark nihilism of “post-truth”, woke culture, identity politics, and political correctness. It will catalyse the bright flame of the enlightenment —liberty, reason and progress.

Enlightenment Defended will create an open realm of vigorous philosophical debate through animation, documentaries, poetry, humour, music and myth. People are many-sided in both apprehension and enjoyment.
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Karl Popper in conversation with David Miller

Karl Popper talks about his division of the world into three classes with my great teacher and logician/philosopher of science David Miller.

Karl Popper talks about his conjecture about a tripartite world: W1, the world of physical things, W2, the world of subjective states and processes, and W3, the world of abstract products of the mind that have an autonomous existence once produced. The latter is similar to Plato's world of forms, but very different, as it includes in addition to concepts, theories and problems. We create these world 3 objects, like a book or a symphony, and they react back on us in unintended and unpredictable ways.

We created the natural numbers, 1, 2, 3, etc, for counting, but then discover that they have strange properties such as the prime number sequence, which was not part of our original purpose. We produce arguments for liberty or other proposals and then discover logical ramifications that surprise us, perhaps even engendering paradoxes or conundrums which then stimulate solutions that add to further progress in our knowledge.

It is to world 3 that our arguments for the enlightenment belong. They have a life and logic of their own in some respects and, given that argument is the liberty-respecting path to sustaining the enlightenment trajectory, it is important to understand this intriguing world-3 aspect of argument.

I explore the role of this abstract quality of theories and ideas in my book The Myth of the Closed Mind. Many who have talked about ideologies and their evolution have talked about them only in respect to Popper's world 2, psychological states and processes, such as fanaticism, dogmatism etc. I survey the unfathomable repercussions of the logical structure of these systems of ideas as they are adopted and rejected and passed on from one acolyte to another, and how they adjust in response to critical argument.

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